Non-woven fabric are produced by entangling fibers, long or short together, either through needle punching or other methods. Some additional thermal treatment is then applied to further improve the strength of the fabric.
Because of this simpler manufacturing process and their superior properties, non-woven are generally best used in applications of drainage, separation, filtration and protection. Non-woven fabrics are referred to by weight and are more felt-like in feel and appearance.
It provides unique functions such as softness, force, water repellent, resilience, prolong, liquid absorbency, moisture absorbency flame retardant, washable, cushioning, filtering, and bacterial barrier. These properties are often combined to create cloth suitable for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost.
It can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest padding. In mixture with other materials it provides a spectrum of products with diverse characteristics, and is used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, industrial, engineering, medical and consumer goods.
Nonwovens In Indian Markets
In India, the recent year growth in the manufacturing sector has been 15% and more importantly, there has been growth in the non-durable goods and sector. Most of the non-durable goods are nonwoven products and it is extremely important that this sector grows quickly in India.
In Non woven fabric industry, the explosion in the number of disposable income group in India the nonwoven industry in India ,based on recent statistics from the USA association .India is expected to register a growth of over 12.4% with the increase in disposable incomes, the need for life enhancing products, automobiles etc., increases. The products comes from this are perfect fit for nonwovens.
In automobile industry, they expected to growth over 20 percentage in the use of nonwovens. In addition, the growing economy in India will definitely support the growth of non-apparel textiles such as nonwovens. Nonwoven products are mainly used in the application of non-apparel end-use and hence they will be supportive of the conventional textile sector in India.
The growth in the nonwovens sector will not hinder the growth of apparel and conventional textile sectors. There is room for the growth of both traditional and nontraditional sectors in India.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-WOVEN
1 SPUN LACE NON-WOVEN FABRIC
In this process, micro flow injection with the high-pressure into a layers or layer of fibrous web, so these fibers are distorted together, so that the web can be strengthened and have a certain strength.
2 THERMAL BONDED NON-WOVEN FABRIC
Thermal bonded nonwovens is defined in the web of fibrous or powder adding hot-melt adhesive reinforcement material, web after heating melt cooling reinforcement into cloth.
3 PULP AIRLAID NONWOVEN FABRIC:
Air-laid non-woven fabrics can be called clean paper, paper non-woven fabrics. It is the use of air laid pulp fiber plate technology will be opening a single fiber state, and then use the airflow method of making fiber agglutination in a curtain net, web reinforcement into cloth.
4 WET NONWOVEN FABRICS
The medium fiber opening into single fibers by placing the wet non- woven fabric in water, after the different fiber raw material mixing into the fiber suspension slurry, then web forming mechanism by a suspension slurry, fiber in wet state into the net reinforcement into cloth.
5 SPUN BONDED NON -WOVEN FABRIC
The polymer has been extruded, prolonged and form a continuous filament, then the continuous filament laying into the net in spun bonded non- woven fabric, the web through the self-bonding, thermal bonding, chemical bonding or mechanical reinforcement method, make the web into a non-woven fabric.
6 MELT-BOLWN NON WOVEN FABRIC
In Melt blowing nonwoven process, the polymer blend melt extrusion formation –fiber-fiber cooling – net – reinforcement into cloth.
7 ACUPUNCTURE NON WOVENS
Acupuncture nonwoven is also called as dry non-woven fabrics, non-woven fabrics is used by the needle puncture, the cloth .from fluffy web reinforcement.
8 STITCH-BONDED NON WOVEN FABRIC
Stitch-bonded non-woven is a dry non-woven fabric, stitch-bonded is the use of warp coil structure on the web, a yarn layer, a non-woven material or their combination for reinforcement, with made of non-woven.
APPLICATION OF NON-WOVEN IN DIFFERENT FIELD
1 MEDICAL FIELD
*As the technology gradually improved. Non-woven proved to be superior to woven products in terms of disposability, adaptability, effectiveness and cost.
*Ubiquitous Cross-Contamination and nosocomial infections in hospitals made it clear that the re-use of masks and gowns was largely to blame.
*Dispose of potentially contaminated items against bacteria, they were also better than linens for air-borne contamination reduction. Disposable woven products industry is poised to reach a whopping $20,000,000.000 by 2017.
*Non-woven fabric dominate this industry because,
-> Help to reduce the today-riskier medical environments due to drug resistant bacteria.
->Can meet increasing demands for more environmentally responsible.
*It can be used in healthcare products: surgical masks, bedding, dressing, implantable like sutures, orthopedic and tissue structures. Simply, non-woven technology has greatly improved the life of many individuals with the use of relatively new exciting field of bio-medical textiles.
*Non-woven can be manufactured using eco-friendly, natural fibers. It often use cottons which has many wonderful application for medical setting (naturally absorbent, soft).
2 AUTOMOTIVE FIELD
* In auto motive field , the non-woven fabrics can be used for air filter, seats, reinforcement for tyre reinforcement, floor mats or in the boot of the car they are used for lining purpose. Non-woven fabric having many advantages in automobile market.
*These are essential for reinforcement protection from wear and tear and effective filtration. Techtex industrial offers a broad range of cost effective non-woven fabrics for the automobile industry.
*Today more than 40 automobile parts are made with non-woven fabric from trunk liners etc.,. Durable non-woven fabrics have high strength and are resistant to abrasion. Non-woven are very cost-effective because they generally weigh less than woven material.
*They contribute to making car safer, more attractive, long-lasting and cost-effective. All products are available in 17-65 gsm and can be poly coated with low density poly ethylene, poly propylene and polymer blends. Non-woven are more preferred to use as acoustic because of their more porous structure, more surface area and low cost of production.
3 GEO TEXTILES FIELD
*The main functions for these products are filtration and separation. The most common non-woven is needle punched product. Staple fibers or continuous filament are bonded by mechanically entangling the fibers with barbed needles.
*Product will be manufactured in white or orange. The examples for Non-woven filtration contain around the pipes are wrapped by geotextiles or enclosing stone with a geotextile for creating a system which allows water to pass but it keeps soil from infiltrating and it will clog the system.
*Non-woven drainage fabrics are an alternatively economical for graded quantum and we can eliminate many of the problems by the sand filters .
*It is used for separation application: These include paver patios or walkways; outdoor areas where cow and horses exercise to prevent mud. In drainage it collect surplus water from soil and discharge it.
4 LAND FILLS
*The long-term performance of sand leachate drainage system in landfills have led to the use of gravel instead of sand. This requires placing a protection layer between the gravel and geomembrane to ensure the long term integrity of liner.
*Non-woven geotextile provide a cushion from point loading of stone is complex. Environmental grade non-woven require more fiber to produce and are subsequently more expensive than civil non-woven.
*Due to the size of public landfill and the type of heavy equipment present at them. Environmental non-woven come in very large and heavy rolls. It repair the road surfaces.
*By using it will prevent from the pavement cracking. It improves life span of the new asphalt over lay structure. Strength range of the product is between 100KN/m to 1200KN/m.
*DON’T FRAY is the chemical nature of bonded fibers that give non-woven its durable, non-fraying capacity. Just as knit fibers don’t unravel though stretching easily. Non-woven fabric are tightly held together in a similar configuration which dispels fraying.
*In this different ways of material held together by chemicals, stitching or felting. 3 methods are chemical bonding, mechanical bonding, and thermal bonding.
Non-woven fabrics are also called as engineered fabrics that may be a short limited life time . Single-use fabric or a very durable fabric.
Nonwoven fabric provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, wash ability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barrier and sterility. For creating a fabric to suited with a specific job for achieving a good balance between cost and life for using products .
In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods. In this paper we discussed what non-woven is and their applications in textile.